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Guideline
颅内出血   INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE
脑出血(ICH):是指脑实质内出血,包括外伤性脑出血和非外伤性(自发性)脑出血。
- 本文介绍原发性(占80-85%)和继发性非外伤性脑出血,即颅内或全身性疾病引起原发性脑出血,其中以高血压性脑出血最常见,约占70-80%。
蛛网膜下腔出血(SAH):主要原因是脑动脉瘤破裂(aSAH),约占SAH的75-80%,是严重损伤中枢神经系统并对全身多个器官产生病理影响的急性脑血管疾病。

脑出血在脑卒中各亚型中发病率仅次于缺血性脑卒中,居第2位。人群中脑出血的发病率为12-15例/10万人年。脑出血发病凶险,病情变化快,致死致残率高,超过70%的患者发生早期血肿扩大或累及脑室,3个月内的死亡率为20%一
30%。
SAH的发病率每年接近9例/10万,6个月内死亡率约为60%。
高龄和高血压是脑出血最重要的危险因素。大约15%的患者在睡醒后出现症状;约50%的患者有不同程度的意识障碍,而在缺血性卒中不常见;约40%患者出现头痛;呕吐是脑出血的一个重要体征,特别是大脑半球血肿或蛛网膜下腔出血的患者。
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医药新闻
2017年5月
台湾一项大型队列研究显示,创伤性颅内出血患者继发房颤的风险较高。
2017年3月, Roshini Claire Anthony
在休斯敦举行的2017年国际卒中大会上的一项meta分析结果显示,脑叶或非脑叶颅内出血后重启口服抗凝治疗与死亡风险降低以及较好的神经功能结局相关。
2016年12月
一项分析结果显示,胆固醇酯转运蛋白(CETP)的基因活性改变可能增加颅内出血风险。
2016年10月
一项研究表明,脑微出血增加症状性颅内出血和功能结局不良的风险。
2016年8月
2016年7月份,国家食品药品监督管理总局共批准药品上市申请31件,其中,国产化学药品24件,进口化学药品5件、生物制品2件(品种目录见附件)。
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药物信息

O号 Compound Reserpine and Triamterene - CR Double-Crane  [  华润双鹤 CR Double-Crane   ]  -  硫酸双肼屈嗪 + 氢氯噻嗪 + 利血平 + 氨苯蝶啶 dihydralazine sulfate + hydrochlorothiazide + rese...
适应症: 轻、中度高血压,重度高血压需与其它降压药合用。
MIMS药理分类 其他降压药 Other Antihypertensives  
Compound Reserpine and Triamterene - CR Double-Crane083913a2-ddd9-432e-8e4f-a8ff00e94b77.GIF
欣然 Xin Ran  [  现代制药 Shyndec Pharm   ]  硝苯地平 Nifedipine
适应症: 高血压,冠心病,慢性稳定型心绞痛(劳累性心绞痛)。
MIMS药理分类 钙拮抗药 Calcium Antagonists  
Xin Ran modified-release tab 30 mg082766d4-a69e-435d-b0f7-9fcb0189330d.GIF
妥塞敏 Transamin  [  第一三共 Daiichi-Sankyo   ]  氨甲环酸 Tranexamic acid
适应症: 全身纤溶亢进所致的出血,如白血病、再生不良性贫血、紫癜,以及手术中和手术后的异常出血。局部纤溶亢进所致的异常出血,如肺出血、鼻出血、生殖器出血、肾出血、前列腺手术中和手术后的异常出血。
MIMS药理分类 止血剂 Haemostatics  
依立卢 Eril  [  旭化成 Asahi Kasei   ]   [  卫材 Eisai  ]   [  卫材 Eisai  ]  -  盐酸法舒地尔 fasudil hydrochloride
适应症: 改善及预防蛛网膜下腔出血术后的脑血管痉挛及随之引起的脑缺血症状。
MIMS药理分类 周围血管扩张药和脑激活剂 Peripheral Vasodilators & Cerebral Activators  
拜新同 Adalat GITS  [ 拜耳医药保健 Bayer HealthCare 硝苯地平 Nifedipine
适应症: 高血压,冠心病:慢性稳定型心绞痛(劳力性心绞痛)。
MIMS药理分类 钙拮抗药 Calcium Antagonists  
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参考文献
  1. 中国脑血管病防治指南 - 卫生部疾病控制司/中华医学会神经病学分会、中国医师学会,2006
  2. 临床诊疗指南神经病学分册-人民卫生出版社,2006年12月(中华医学会编著)
  3. 实用内科学(第13版) - 人民卫生出版社,2009年(主编:陈灏珠)
  4. 实用内科学(第14版) - 人民卫生出版社,2013年(主编:陈灏珠,林果为,王吉耀)。
  5. 成人自发性脑出血诊断标准 - 卫生部,2010年,卫生部网站:http://www.moh.gov.cn/zwgkzt/s9494/201007/47951.shtml
  6. 自发性脑出血治疗指南,美国心脏协会/美国卒中协会对医疗卫生专业人员发布的指南 - 国际脑血管病杂志,2010年8月第18卷第8期,561-580页
  7. 颅内动脉瘤血管内介入治疗中国专家共识(2013),中华医学会神经外科学分会神经介入学组 - 中华医学杂志,2013年10月第93卷第39期,3093-3103页。
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  10. Connolly ES Jr, Rabinstein AA, Carhuapoma JR, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Clinical. Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/american Stroke Association. Stroke. 2012 Jun;43(6):1711-1137. doi: 10.1161/STR.0b013e3182587839. PMID: 22556195
  11. Diringer MN, Bleck TP, Claude Hemphill J 3rd,et al; Neurocritical Care Society. Critical care management of patients following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: recommendations from the Neurocritical Care Society's Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference. Neurocrit Care. 2011 Sep;15(2):211-240. doi: 10.1007/s12028-011-9605-9. PMID: 21773873
  12. Elijovich L, Patel PV, Hemphill JC 3rd. Intracerebral hemorrhage. Semin Neurol. 2008 Nov;28(5):657-667. PMID: 19115172
  13. European Stroke Organization. European Stroke Organization guidelines for the management of intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;35(2):93-112. doi: 10.1159/000346087. PMID: 23406828.
  14. Gebel JM, Broderick JP. Intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurol Clin. 2000 May;18(2):419-438. PMID: 10757834
  15. Jauch E, Kissela B, Stettler B. Acute stroke management. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1159752-overview. Jun 2009
  16. Jeffrey S. New AHA/ASA guidelines on management of intracerebral hemorrhage. Medscape. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/726066. 2010. Accessed 16 Mar 2011
  17. Ministry of Health Singapore. MOH clinical practice guidelines. Stroke and transient ischaemic attacks: assessment, investigation, immediate management and secondary prevention. MOH (Singapore). http://www.moh.gov.sg/content/moh_web/home/Publications/guidelines/cpg/2009/stroke_and_transient_ishaemic_attacks.html. 2003
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  20. Panagos PD, Jauch EC, Broderick JP. Intracerebral hemorrhage. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2002 Aug;20(3):631-655. PMID: 12379965
  21. Pouratian N, Kassell NF, Dumont AS. Update on management of intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Oct;15(4):E2. PMID: 15344895
  22. Powers WJ, Zazulia AR, Videen TO, et al. Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow surrounding acute (6 to 22 hours) intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2001 Jul;57(1):18-24. PMID: 11445622
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  24. Qureshi AI, Tuhrim S, Broderick JP, et al. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2001 May;344(19):1450-1460. PMID: 11346811
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  29. Thompson KM, Gerlach SY, Jorn HK, et al. Advances in the care of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007 Aug;82(8):987-990. PMID: 17673068
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